The enduring impact of the pandemic on gender patterns of paid and unpaid work: evidence from time-use data in Turkey

Ipek Ilkkaracan, Emel Memiş


This paper examines changes in the gender patterns of paid and unpaid work in Turkey from the pre-pandemic period to the early pandemic phase under lockdown conditions and the late pandemic phase under relative normalization. We analyze data from three surveys fielded during these periods. We first adjust for demographic shifts during the pandemic to isolate the changes in paid and unpaid work. We then examine the impact of new work arrangements during the pandemic. Pooled regression analysis shows that paid work time has largely returned to pre-pandemic levels under partial normalization. Unpaid work time has decreased relative to the lockdown period, but it remains higher than pre-pandemic, particularly for women but also for men. The more enduring effects of the pandemic pertain to paid work, attitudes toward teleworking, and the provisioning of social care services. The share of teleworking has increased for women and men. 

JEL classification: J16, J22, O52


COVID-19, work, gender gaps, care

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